La prensa internacional

Los medios internacionales comentan el comienzo de las elecciones en Argentina. Aqui publicamos notas de la BBC, O Globo, El País y de Le Monde.


Key questions in Argentina’s election
Daniel Schweimler
BBC
28 de octubre 2007

There are several key questions relating to the Argentine presidential election on Sunday to which no-one has provided any answers.
The first is why President Nestor Kirchner, riding high in the opinion polls, facing an unpopular and fragmented opposition, and with the economy looking healthy, decided he wasn’t going to stand for a second term in office.
Instead, he opened the way for his wife, Cristina, to take over.
There were plenty of rumours. Perhaps he was sick, said some. Or with a two-term limit for the Argentine presidency, he could allow his wife to continue his work for four years then bounce back in 2011 for a further eight years in office.
Mr Kirchner has never explained why he stood down or what he will do when he hangs up the presidential sash.
Cristina Kirchner is glamorous. She is a confident speaker and in recent months travelled the world making friends and forming alliances.
Being the president’s wife, she promises continuity. But being very different to him she can also promise change, and distance herself from his mistakes.
Cristina Kirchner has been well ahead in the opinion polls, with most predicting she will win a clear majority, with no need for a second round of voting
But there lies the second unanswered question. Can Argentines trust the official statistics fed to them on a daily basis?
Divided opposition
The former economy minister and current presidential candidate, Roberto Lavagna, says the opinion polls are controlled by the government.
In a BBC interview, he said: “The opinion polls in Argentina are used to create a political situation, not to inform the public about what is going on.”
He added that a clearer indication of the government’s popularity were the defeats they suffered in regional elections earlier this year.
Mr Lavagna is convinced the election will go to a second round of voting at the end of November and that he will be the one battling it out with Cristina Kirchner.
The other main contender is former beauty queen Elisa Carrio, who is campaigning on a left-of-centre ticket.
But political analyst Felipe Noguera says the opposition has pretty much collapsed. He added that the political crisis of six years ago is still fresh in most Argentines’ minds and the opposition has little chance of making any kind of breakthrough.
“The main thing driving the Argentine electorate is fear,” he said. “Fear of a political collapse. They may not like what the Kirchners have to offer but he’s basically kept the ship going in some sort of direction. They don’t want to rock the boat.”
Lies and statistics?
Another doubt in Argentina is over the official statistics the government uses to back up their claims that things are going well.
Even the workers at the government’s official statistics office, Indec, say their figures are manipulated to create the impression the economy is doing better than it really is.
They regularly hold demonstrations outside their Buenos Aires offices against what they say is government interference. The government, not surprisingly, denies this.
Economist Carlos Rodriguez Braun said: “The government is not trying to control inflation, it is only controlling the figures on inflation.”
Despite rising prices and the fear that inflation might again rear its ugly head, the economy is doing well.
On average, it has been growing 8% a year and many Argentines who left the country during the economic collapse in 2001-02 are coming home.
The other great fear is security, and with a daily dose of news stories about kidnappings, armed robberies and murders, Argentines understandably put that issue at the top of their list of concerns.
A few months ago, the election was easy to predict, some might say even a little dull.
Nestor Kirchner would easily win a second term in office and the opposition was nowhere to be seen. But then everything changed.
The president said his wife was standing in his place, his government was hit by a series of corruption scandals, pro-government candidates lost several regional elections and doubts began to grow over whether what the people were being told bore any relation to reality.
All of a sudden, the Argentine presidential election started to look a lot more interesting.

‘Este é um dia muito especial’, diz Cristina Kirchner depois de votar
O Globo
28 de octubre 2007

Cristina deposita o voto numa urna de Rio Gallegos, em Santa Cruz – Reuters
BUENOS AIRES – Os principais candidatos à Presidência argentina já depositaram seus votos nas urnas, abertas às 8h (9h de Brasília) deste domingo. A primeira-dama, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, franca favorita para conquistar o cargo ainda no primeiro turno, votou com o presidente, Néstor Kirchner, em Rio Gallegos, capital da província de Santa Cruz, onde os dois construíram sua carreira política. A candidata evitou fazer declarações, mas destacou a importância de poder votar.
” Quando eu tinha 18 anos não podia votar, então isso é muito importante ”
– Quando eu tinha 18 anos (durante a ditadura militar no país) não podia votar, então isso é muito importante. Pela continuidade da democracia, algumas pessoas não podem avaliar o que significa que cada cidadão possa decidir em que país quer viver – disse ao votar, antes de voltar a Buenos Aires onde acompanhará a apuração dos votos. – Valorizamos isto de uma maneira muito especial. Este é um dia muito especial.
Cristina é seguida nas sondagens pela candidata de centro-esquerda Elisa Carrió e, em terceiro lugar, pelo ex-ministro da economia Roberto Lavagna. O candidato aproveitou para se dizer otimista com a possibilidade de ir ao segundo turno. Já a votação de Elisa Carrió foi marcada por uma confusão entre partidários, jornalistas e policiais. Em meio ao confronto, a candidata evitou falar com a imprensa.
Houve confusão também em algumas das mais de 70 mil seções eleitorais do país, onde foram registrados atrasos por falta de mesários. A Justiça Eleitoral informou que a situação foi normalizada, e garantiu que não há maiores problemas.
Nos últimos dias, 92% dos convocados para trabalhar nas mesas de votação em Buenos Aires não tinham se apresentado ou pediram dispensa. A Justiça convocou servidores e voluntários para cobrir as vagas, mas o governo admite que, em princípio, as “deserções” podem gerar “alguma demora” no processo de apuração de votos.
Eleições históricas, com duas mulheres liderando as pesquisas
Mulher deposita o voto na urna de uma escola pública em Buenos Aires – Reuters
Um total de 27,1 milhões de pessoas estão habilitados a votar nos 14 candidatos à Presidência, numa eleição que já entrou para a história. Esta é a primeira vez que três mulheres disputam a Presidência do país e que duas delas têm chances reais de se eleger. (Saiba mais sobre o que está em jogo)
Esta é também a sexta vez consecutiva que a Argentina escolhe seu chefe de estado desde o retorno à democracia, em 1983, depois do último período de ditadura militar, iniciada em 1976. Este é também o período mais extenso em regime democrático do país desde a adoção do voto obrigatório, secreto e universal, em 1912.
Além do presidente e de seu vice, os argentinos também vão eleger 130 deputados federais para renovar a metade do quadro legislativo, e 24 senadores nacionais que vão mudar um terço da composição da Casa. Na esfera local, serão eleitos oito governadores, 209 deputados e 63 senadores provinciais.
Os argentinos que moram fora do país também foram às urnas neste domingo. Segundo comunicado emitido pelo Ministério das Relações Exteriores da Argentina, mais de 45 mil cidadãos do país residentes no exterior estão habilitados a votar em 113 embaixadas e consulados.
Até três horas depois do fechamento das urnas, às 18h (19h de Brasília), está proibida a divulgação de pesquisas de boca-de-urna. A apuração do resultado só deverá ser concluída na segunda ou na terça-feira, já que a votação na Argentina é manual. Caso haja necessidade, o segundo turno será realizado no dia 25 de novembro. O eleito assumirá o cargo no dia 10 de dezembro.


Argentina vota con Cristina Kirchner como favorita
El País
28 de octubre 2007

La senadora Cristina Kirchner no se juega hoy sólo la posibilidad de continuar la gestión de su marido, el presidente Néstor Kirchner, sino también la posibilidad de ser la primera mujer de Argentina en llegar a la Presidencia mediante elecciones. Unos 27 millones de ciudadanos están llamados a las urnas, aunque la convicción de que Cristina Kirchner tiene asegurada la victoria ha sembrado de apatía la campaña electoral. Los colegios han abierto a las ocho de la mañana (mediodía en España) y la jornada transcurre con normalidad, salvo algunos retrasos en la apertura de algunas mesas. ARGENTINA VOTA | Cobertura especial
El único antecedente de presidenta es el de María Estela Martínez de Perón, apodada Isabel, la viuda del fundador del Partido Justicialista, Juan Domingo Perón, quien llegó a la Jefatura del Estado en 1974 tras la muerte de su esposo, a quien había acompañado como candidata a la Vicepresidencia en los comicios disputados el año anterior.
Dos mujeres en cabeza
Un dato inconstrastable es que los dos candidatos que tienen posibilidades de acceder a la presidencia son mujeres: además de la esposa de Kirchner, la ex diputada Elisa Carrió, aspirante por la Coalición Cívica, marcha segunda en las encuestas y ha asegurado que participará en la segunda vuelta. Católica, separada, de comunión diaria, Carrió vive su paso por la política con la convicción de quien lleva adelante una misión casi mística. Con sus denuncias de casos de corrupción en los últimos años, se ha convertido en una suerte de implacable fiscal, que promueve la realización de una revolución ética.
No es un dato menor que las dos principales candidatas sean mujeres, en un país donde el machismo todavía existe, y donde las mujeres fueron autorizadas recientemente a votar por una ley aprobada en septiembre de 1947, durante la primera presidencia de Perón.
Apertura de colegios
Aunque oficialmente los colegios han abierto a las ocho de la mañana, según ha informado el jefe de Gabinete argentino, Alberto Fernández, en algunos centros de votación se ha retrasado el inicio de las elecciones. No obstante, ha restado importancia al asunto. Fuentes de la Justicia Electoral, han dicho que “no existen mayores problemas” y la situación se normaliza en todo el país.
Además de presidente y vicepresidente, los 27 millones de argentinos con derecho a voto elegirán 130 diputados nacionales para renovar la mitad del cuerpo legislativo, y 24 senadores nacionales para reemplazar un tercio de los integrantes de la Cámara Alta, además de ocho gobernadores provinciales ?Buenos Aires, Santa Cruz, Mendoza, La Pampa, Jujuy, Salta, Formosa y Misiones.
Los principales candidatos ya han ejercido su derecho al voto y, como es habitual, han destacado la “jornada democrática” que hoy se vive en el país. La favorita, Cristina Kirchner, ha declarado que valora “mucho esta jornada de democracia en la que cada
ciudadano y ciudadana puede definir (a las autoridades) con su voto”. Tras votar en Santa Cruz, ha viajado a Buenos Aires para seguir el recuento. El revuelo de periodistas y personal de seguridad que rodeaba a la candidata de la Coalición Cívica, Elisa Carrió, ha impedido que realizara declaraciones. Finalmente, el ex ministro de Economía Roberto Lavagna, candidato de Una Nación Avanzada (UNA) ha deseado “un excepcional día democrático” y que “todo el mundo vote en orden”.
Apatía
La campaña electoral se ha caracterizado por una apatía general, supuestamente debido a que desde hace meses todas las encuestas vaticinan una victoria con amplio margen de la candidata del oficialista Frente para la Victoria, la senadora Cristina Fernández. Los últimos sondeos conocidos ayer coinciden en pronosticar el primer lugar para la esposa de Kirchner y la mayoría sostiene que obtendrá tal cantidad de apoyos que ni siquiera será necesario disputar una segunda vuelta entre los dos aspirantes más votados.
La Constitución argentina establece, tras la reforma de 1994, que para que no se celebre una segunda vuelta, el candidato más votado deberá obtener más del 45% de los sufragios o cosechar el 40% de los votos más una diferencia de diez puntos sobre el segundo. El diario Clarín publicaba ayer ocho encuestas que adjudican el triunfo a Fernández en primera vuelta. Sólo el sondeo de la consultora Opinión Autenticada le adjudica a la esposa de Kirchner el 39,5% de los votos, con lo que debería disputar la segunda vuelta.

Argentina choosing new president
BBC
28 de octubre 2007

Argentines are heading to the polls to choose a new president to succeed Nestor Kirchner, who has governed for the past four years.
Opinion polls suggest the president’s wife, Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner, could win in the first round.
Her main rivals are a former beauty queen, Elisa Carrio, and Mr Kirchner’s ex-Economy Minister Roberto Lavagna.
Voters will also elect eight provincial governors, a third of the Senate and about half of the Chamber of Deputies.
There are some 27 million people eligible to vote, with polls closing at 1800 local time (2100 GMT).
People have been attending polling stations under sunny skies across most of the country.
After casting her vote in her south Patagonian home town of Rio Gallegos, Mrs Kirchner kissed supporters on their cheeks and declared it was “an important day for the continuation of democracy”.
“I’m part of the generation that grew up and couldn’t vote for anything,” she added, referring to the military dictatorship of 1976-83.
Economy and crime
To win in the first round, a candidate needs to obtain either 45% of the vote, or 40% if they are 10 percentage points ahead of their nearest rival.
Recent opinion polls show Mrs Kirchner with between 39.5% and 49.4% of votes.
If she wins, she will be the first woman elected president of Argentina.
The economy and rising crime have been the two main issues in campaigning.
President Kirchner has overseen a return to stability and some prosperity since the economy collapsed six years ago, plunging thousands into poverty, the BBC’s Daniel Schweimler reports from Buenos Aires.
But there are fears over how strong the economy really is and general scepticism over official statistics suggesting inflation is under control.
Ms Carrio, the candidate of the centre-left Civic Coalition, is running on an anti-corruption platform and is promising to reduce economic inequality.
She has urged the poorest to vote for her in order to take the election to a second round run-off on 25 November.
The other 12 candidates include Mr Lavagna of the centrist Coalition for an Advanced Nation and a well-known free-market economist, Ricardo Lopez Murphy.
Mrs Kirchner’s critics have attacked her for failing to outline exactly what her policies are but voters who spoke to the BBC’s Will Grant in Buenos Aires said the opposition had failed to offer any real alternative.
Surprise candidate
Just a few months ago, Mr Kirchner was riding high in the opinion polls and looked set to continue for a second four-year term.
However, it was announced in July that his wife Cristina, senator for Buenos Aires province, would stand in his place. No explanation was given.
As candidate for the governing Front for Victory, she has promised to continue her husband’s centre-left policies.
As well as facing comparisons with Eva Peron, Argentina’s legendary former first lady, Mrs Kirchner has been compared to former US First Lady Hillary Clinton, who is also a lawyer and senator seeking to become the first elected female president of her country.
“I don’t want to be compared with… anybody,” she said recently.
“There’s nothing better than being yourself.”
Cristina Kirchner favorite pour succéder à son mari à la présidence argentine
Le Monde
BUENOS AIRES CORRESPONDANTE
28 de octubre 2007

Vingt-sept millions d’Argentins se rendent aux urnes, dimanche 28 octobre, pour élire leur président pour un mandat de quatre ans. Ils votent également pour renouveler une partie du Parlement – 24 sénateurs et 130 députés – ainsi que 8 gouverneurs et législateurs provinciaux. La campagne s’est déroulée sans la passion de scrutins antérieurs.
Pour le scrutin présidentiel, quatorze candidats sont en lice. L’épouse du président Nestor Kirchner, la sénatrice péroniste Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner, 54 ans, est donnée favorite dans tous les sondages, avec entre 40 % et 47 % des voix. Elle est à la tête du Front pour la victoire, regroupant péronistes, radicaux et socialistes dissidents, tous ceux qui sont rassemblés sous l’appellation “pro-K”. Pour l’emporter au premier tour, elle doit recueillir 45 % des voix ou 40 % avec un écart de plus de dix points sur son adversaire le mieux placé.
Une autre femme, Elisa Carrio, candidate chrétienne de centre-gauche, 50 ans, arrive en deuxième position, loin derrière Mme Kirchner, avec quelque 19 % des voix.
Dans son dernier meeting électoral, le 25 octobre, à La Matanza, banlieue populaire de Buenos Aires, Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner a promis de réaliser “tous les rêves qui manquent encore”. Elle recrute le noyau dur de son électorat parmi les pauvres et les membres de la classe ouvrière qui considèrent que leurs vies se sont améliorées sous la présidence de M. Kirchner. Ils voient en elle une garantie de la continuité de la récupération économique face à une opposition divisée. Sa victoire devrait être décisive dans la province de Buenos Aires, fief du péronisme, qui rassemble 40 % de l’électorat.
L’Argentine connaît depuis cinq ans une croissance à la chinoise de 8 % à 9 % par an grâce à un contexte international favorable, avec l’envolée des prix des matières premières. Une grande partie de la dette externe a été restructurée. Le chômage et la pauvreté ont reculé, même si les inégalités restent criantes.
La population sait aussi gré à M. Kirchner d’avoir permis la réouverture de procès contre les tortionnaires de la dictature militaire (1976-1983). A la veille du scrutin, le président sortant a adopté des mesures populaires : hausse des plans d’aide sociale, du salaire minimum, des retraites et réduction de l’impôt sur la fortune. De son côté, Mme Kirchner a accordé, de façon inédite, des entretiens à des médias locaux et refusé de participer à tout débat télévisé avec les autres candidats. L’opposition, elle, accuse le gouvernement d’avoir utilisé des fonds publics pour financer la campagne de la première dame argentine.
Christine Legrand
CHIFFRES
POPULATION.
39,1 millions d’habitants, dont 11,5 millions à Buenos Aires, la capitale.
RELIGION.
Catholique (à 91 %)
INSTITUTIONS.
L’Argentine est une République fédérale. Elle compte 23 provinces, plus le territoire de Buenos Aires. Le président de la République, élu pour quatre ans, est rééligible une fois. L’organe législatif est composé d’une Chambre des députés et d’un Sénat.
ECONOMIE.
Après la débâcle de 2001-2002, le PIB est en croissance continue (8,4 % entre janvier et septembre). Le chômage est à 8,5 % (second trimestre).